Differential Pain-Related Behaviors and Bone Disease in Immunocompetent Mouse Models of Myeloma
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Bone pain is a serious and debilitating symptom of multiple myeloma (MM) that impairs the quality of life of patients. The underlying mechanisms of the pain are unknown and understudied, and there is a need for immunocompetent preclinical models of myeloma-induced bone pain. The aim of this study was to provide the first in-depth behavioral characterization of an immunocompetent mouse model of MM presenting the clinical disease features: osteolytic bone disease and bone pain. We hypothesized that a widely used syngeneic model of MM, established by systemic inoculation of green fluorescent protein-tagged myeloma cells (5TGM1-GFP) in immunocompetent C57Bl/KaLwRijHsd (BKAL) mice, would present pain-related behaviors. Disease phenotype was confirmed by splenomegaly, high serum paraprotein, and tumor infiltration in the bone marrow of the hind limbs; however, myeloma-bearing mice did not present pain-related behaviors or substantial bone disease. Thus, we investigated an alternative model in which 5TGM1-GFP cells were directly inoculated into the intrafemoral medullary cavity. This localized myeloma model presented the hallmarks of the disease, including high serum paraprotein, tumor growth, and osteolytic bone lesions. Compared with control mice, myeloma-bearing mice presented myeloma-induced pain-related behaviors, a phenotype that was reversed by systemic morphine treatment. Micro-computed tomography analyses of the myeloma-inoculated femurs showed bone disease in cortical and trabecular bone. Repeated systemic bisphosphonate treatment induced an amelioration of the nociceptive phenotype, but did not completely reverse it. Furthermore, intrafemorally injected mice presented a profound denervation of the myeloma-bearing bones, a previously unknown feature of the disease. This study reports the intrafemoral inoculation of 5TGM1-GFP cells as a robust immunocompetent model of myeloma-induced bone pain, with consistent bone loss. Moreover, the data suggest that myeloma-induced bone pain is caused by a combinatorial mechanism including osteolysis and bone marrow denervation. © 2019 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
|Number of pages||14|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|
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