Clinical and molecular markers in retinal detachment—From hyperreflective points to stem cells and inflammation

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  • Natasha Josifovska
  • Xhevat Lumi
  • Mária Szatmari-Tóth
  • Endre Kristóf
  • Greg Russell
  • Richárd Nagymihály
  • Natalia Anisimova
  • Boris Malyugin
  • Kolko, Miriam
  • Domagoj Ivastinović
  • Goran Petrovski

Purpose Retinal detachment (RD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed ophthalmologic conditions requiring prompt surgical intervention. Combination of proper surgical technique and new diagnostic markers, both clinical and molecular, can help improve the diagnosis and prognosis of RD treatment. Methods 12 patients with rhegmatogenous RD (rRD) were included into the study after obtaining patient consent and Regional Ethical Approval (average age: 58.1 ± 17.4 years). OCT was performed before and after 23G vitrectomy for RD. Pure subretinal fluid (SRF) was collected during surgery and analyzed by protein array profiling on a panel of 105 inflammatory cytokines (Human XL Cytokine Array), while the effect of SRF upon human macrophages-driven phagocytosis of apoptotic retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells ex vivo was quantified by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of retinectomized tissue due to PVR caused by RD was performed to determine presence of markers for microglial cells (CD34), macrophages and activated microglia (CD68), regulator of the immune response to infection (NFkB), progenitor and stem cell marker (Sox2), pluripotency marker (Oct4) and intermediate filament markers (GFAP and Nestin). Results OCT of fresh RD patients contained pre-operatively hyper reflective points (HRPs) at the detached neuroretina border and proximal to the RPE layer—their size and number decreased following successful reattachment surgery. IHC of the retinectomized tissue from detached retina due to severe PVR showed presence of cell conglomerates at the detached neuroretina border which were positive for CD68, NFkB, Sox2 and GFAP, less positive for CD47 and Nestin and negative for Oct4 and CD34. The SRF contained at least 37 cytokines with higher, and 4 cytokine with lower concentration compared to that in vitreous from non-RD pathology; when used as conditional medium to human macrophages ex vivo, the SRF doubled their capacity for engulfing dying RPEs. Conclusions Fresh RD can be hallmarked by presence of HRPs at the detached neuroretina border on OCT; the HRPs decrease in size and number after successful reattachment surgery, and likely resemble the macrophage conglomerates seen by IHC. The neuroretina in RD contains progenitor/stem-like cells and signs of inflammatory reaction, while the SRF contains inflammatory cytokines and other factors which increase the ability of professional phagocytes to engulf dying RPE, or for that matter, other dying cells in the retina.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0217548
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number6
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2019

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