Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Test-Based versus Presumptive Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Children under Five Years in an Area of High Transmission in Central Ghana.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Journal article › Research › peer-review
Theresa Tawiah, Kristian Schultz Hansen, Frank Baiden, Jane Bruce, Mathilda Tivura, Rupert Delimini, Seeba Amengo-Etego, Daniel Chandramohan, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Jayne Webster
Methods: A cluster-randomised controlled trial where thirty-two health centres were randomised into test-based diagnosis of malaria using mRDTs (intervention) or clinical judgement (control) was used to measure the effect of mRDTs on appropriate treatment: ‘a child with a positive reference diagnosis prescribed a course of ACT or a child with a negative reference diagnosis not given an ACT’. Cost data was collected from five purposively selected health centres and used to estimate the health sector costs of performing an mRDT and treat children for malaria and other common febrile illnesses. Costs of training healthcare personnel and supervision in the study period were also collected. A sample of caregivers to children participating in the trial was interviewed about household cost incurred on transport, drugs, fees, and special food during a period of one week after the health centre visit as well as days unable to work. A decision model approach was used to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses were applied to assess the robustness of ICERs.
Results: The availability of mRDTs for malaria diagnosis resulted in fewer ACT treatments compared to the clinical judgement approach (73% versus 81%) and more children appropriately treated (70% versus 57%). The introduction of mRDT-based diagnosis would cost the Ministry of Health US$18.6 per extra appropriately treated child under five compared to clinical judgement while the ICER from a societal perspective was lower at US$11.0 per appropriately treated child. ICERs were sensitive to a decrease in adherence to negative mRDTs, malaria positivity rate and specificity of the mRDT.
Conclusion: The introduction of mRDTs is likely to be considered cost-effective in this high transmission setting as this intervention increased the number of appropriately treated children at low cost.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00832754
|Journal||P L o S One|
|Number of pages||18|
|Publication status||Published - 3 Oct 2016|
- The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences