Distinct structural features of cyclothiazide are responsible for effects on peak current amplitude and desensitization kinetics at iGluR2

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Standard

Distinct structural features of cyclothiazide are responsible for effects on peak current amplitude and desensitization kinetics at iGluR2. / Hald, Helle; Ahring, Philip Kiær; Timmermann, Daniel Brunicardi; Liljefors, Tommy; Gajhede, Michael; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm.

In: Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol. 391, No. 5, 2009, p. 906-917.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Hald, H, Ahring, PK, Timmermann, DB, Liljefors, T, Gajhede, M & Kastrup, JS 2009, 'Distinct structural features of cyclothiazide are responsible for effects on peak current amplitude and desensitization kinetics at iGluR2', Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. 391, no. 5, pp. 906-917. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2009.07.002

APA

Hald, H., Ahring, P. K., Timmermann, D. B., Liljefors, T., Gajhede, M., & Kastrup, J. S. (2009). Distinct structural features of cyclothiazide are responsible for effects on peak current amplitude and desensitization kinetics at iGluR2. Journal of Molecular Biology, 391(5), 906-917. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2009.07.002

Vancouver

Hald H, Ahring PK, Timmermann DB, Liljefors T, Gajhede M, Kastrup JS. Distinct structural features of cyclothiazide are responsible for effects on peak current amplitude and desensitization kinetics at iGluR2. Journal of Molecular Biology. 2009;391(5):906-917. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2009.07.002

Author

Hald, Helle ; Ahring, Philip Kiær ; Timmermann, Daniel Brunicardi ; Liljefors, Tommy ; Gajhede, Michael ; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm. / Distinct structural features of cyclothiazide are responsible for effects on peak current amplitude and desensitization kinetics at iGluR2. In: Journal of Molecular Biology. 2009 ; Vol. 391, No. 5. pp. 906-917.

Bibtex

@article{3fa3bd80067511df825d000ea68e967b,
title = "Distinct structural features of cyclothiazide are responsible for effects on peak current amplitude and desensitization kinetics at iGluR2",
abstract = "Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission. Upon glutamate application, 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid receptors undergo rapid and almost complete desensitization that can be attenuated by positive allosteric modulators. The molecular mechanism of positive allosteric modulation has been elucidated previously by crystal structures of the ligand-binding core of iGluR2 in complex with, for example, cyclothiazide (CTZ). Here, we investigate the structure and function of CTZ and three closely related analogues NS1493, NS5206, and NS5217 at iGluR2, by X-ray crystallography and fast application patch-clamp electrophysiology. CTZ was the most efficacious and potent modulator of the four compounds on iGluR2(Q)(i) [E(max) normalized to response of glutamate: 754{\%} (CTZ), 490{\%} (NS1493), 399{\%} (NS5206), and 476{\%} (NS5217) and EC(50) in micromolar: 10 (CTZ), 26 (NS1493), 43 (NS5206), and 48 (NS5217)]. The four modulators divide into three groups according to efficacy and desensitization kinetics: (1) CTZ increases the peak current efficacy twice as much as the three analogues and nearly completely blocks receptor desensitization; (2) NS5206 and NS5217 have low efficacy and only attenuate desensitization partially; (3) NS1493 has low efficacy but nearly completely blocks receptor desensitization. A hydrophobic substituent at the 3-position of the 1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[e][1,2,4]thiadiazine ring system is important for compound efficacy, with the following ranking: norbornenyl (bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene)>cyclopentyl>methyl. The replacement of the norbornenyl moiety with a significantly less hydrophobic cyclopentane ring increases the flexibility of the modulator as the cyclopentane ring adopts various conformations at the iGluR2 allosteric binding site. The main structural feature responsible for a nearly complete block of desensitization is the presence of an NH hydrogen bond donor in the 4-position of the 1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[e][1,2,4]thiadiazine ring system, forming an anchoring hydrogen bond to Ser754. Therefore, the atom at the 4-position of CTZ seems to be a major determinant of receptor desensitization kinetics.",
keywords = "Former Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences",
author = "Helle Hald and Ahring, {Philip Ki{\ae}r} and Timmermann, {Daniel Brunicardi} and Tommy Liljefors and Michael Gajhede and Kastrup, {Jette Sandholm}",
note = "Keywords: Allosteric Regulation; Animals; Antihypertensive Agents; Benzothiadiazines; CHO Cells; Cricetinae; Cricetulus; Crystallography, X-Ray; Dimerization; Glutamic Acid; Models, Molecular; Molecular Sequence Data; Molecular Structure; Patch-Clamp Techniques; Piperazines; Protein Structure, Quaternary; Rats; Receptors, AMPA",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1016/j.jmb.2009.07.002",
language = "English",
volume = "391",
pages = "906--917",
journal = "Journal of Molecular Biology",
issn = "0022-2836",
publisher = "Academic Press",
number = "5",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Distinct structural features of cyclothiazide are responsible for effects on peak current amplitude and desensitization kinetics at iGluR2

AU - Hald, Helle

AU - Ahring, Philip Kiær

AU - Timmermann, Daniel Brunicardi

AU - Liljefors, Tommy

AU - Gajhede, Michael

AU - Kastrup, Jette Sandholm

N1 - Keywords: Allosteric Regulation; Animals; Antihypertensive Agents; Benzothiadiazines; CHO Cells; Cricetinae; Cricetulus; Crystallography, X-Ray; Dimerization; Glutamic Acid; Models, Molecular; Molecular Sequence Data; Molecular Structure; Patch-Clamp Techniques; Piperazines; Protein Structure, Quaternary; Rats; Receptors, AMPA

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission. Upon glutamate application, 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid receptors undergo rapid and almost complete desensitization that can be attenuated by positive allosteric modulators. The molecular mechanism of positive allosteric modulation has been elucidated previously by crystal structures of the ligand-binding core of iGluR2 in complex with, for example, cyclothiazide (CTZ). Here, we investigate the structure and function of CTZ and three closely related analogues NS1493, NS5206, and NS5217 at iGluR2, by X-ray crystallography and fast application patch-clamp electrophysiology. CTZ was the most efficacious and potent modulator of the four compounds on iGluR2(Q)(i) [E(max) normalized to response of glutamate: 754% (CTZ), 490% (NS1493), 399% (NS5206), and 476% (NS5217) and EC(50) in micromolar: 10 (CTZ), 26 (NS1493), 43 (NS5206), and 48 (NS5217)]. The four modulators divide into three groups according to efficacy and desensitization kinetics: (1) CTZ increases the peak current efficacy twice as much as the three analogues and nearly completely blocks receptor desensitization; (2) NS5206 and NS5217 have low efficacy and only attenuate desensitization partially; (3) NS1493 has low efficacy but nearly completely blocks receptor desensitization. A hydrophobic substituent at the 3-position of the 1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[e][1,2,4]thiadiazine ring system is important for compound efficacy, with the following ranking: norbornenyl (bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene)>cyclopentyl>methyl. The replacement of the norbornenyl moiety with a significantly less hydrophobic cyclopentane ring increases the flexibility of the modulator as the cyclopentane ring adopts various conformations at the iGluR2 allosteric binding site. The main structural feature responsible for a nearly complete block of desensitization is the presence of an NH hydrogen bond donor in the 4-position of the 1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[e][1,2,4]thiadiazine ring system, forming an anchoring hydrogen bond to Ser754. Therefore, the atom at the 4-position of CTZ seems to be a major determinant of receptor desensitization kinetics.

AB - Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission. Upon glutamate application, 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid receptors undergo rapid and almost complete desensitization that can be attenuated by positive allosteric modulators. The molecular mechanism of positive allosteric modulation has been elucidated previously by crystal structures of the ligand-binding core of iGluR2 in complex with, for example, cyclothiazide (CTZ). Here, we investigate the structure and function of CTZ and three closely related analogues NS1493, NS5206, and NS5217 at iGluR2, by X-ray crystallography and fast application patch-clamp electrophysiology. CTZ was the most efficacious and potent modulator of the four compounds on iGluR2(Q)(i) [E(max) normalized to response of glutamate: 754% (CTZ), 490% (NS1493), 399% (NS5206), and 476% (NS5217) and EC(50) in micromolar: 10 (CTZ), 26 (NS1493), 43 (NS5206), and 48 (NS5217)]. The four modulators divide into three groups according to efficacy and desensitization kinetics: (1) CTZ increases the peak current efficacy twice as much as the three analogues and nearly completely blocks receptor desensitization; (2) NS5206 and NS5217 have low efficacy and only attenuate desensitization partially; (3) NS1493 has low efficacy but nearly completely blocks receptor desensitization. A hydrophobic substituent at the 3-position of the 1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[e][1,2,4]thiadiazine ring system is important for compound efficacy, with the following ranking: norbornenyl (bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene)>cyclopentyl>methyl. The replacement of the norbornenyl moiety with a significantly less hydrophobic cyclopentane ring increases the flexibility of the modulator as the cyclopentane ring adopts various conformations at the iGluR2 allosteric binding site. The main structural feature responsible for a nearly complete block of desensitization is the presence of an NH hydrogen bond donor in the 4-position of the 1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[e][1,2,4]thiadiazine ring system, forming an anchoring hydrogen bond to Ser754. Therefore, the atom at the 4-position of CTZ seems to be a major determinant of receptor desensitization kinetics.

KW - Former Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

U2 - 10.1016/j.jmb.2009.07.002

DO - 10.1016/j.jmb.2009.07.002

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 19591837

VL - 391

SP - 906

EP - 917

JO - Journal of Molecular Biology

JF - Journal of Molecular Biology

SN - 0022-2836

IS - 5

ER -

ID: 17115597