Excitatory amino acid receptor ligands: resolution, absolute stereochemistry, and enantiopharmacology of 2-amino-3-(4-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid
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(RS)-2-Amino-3-(4-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid (Bu-HIBO, 6) has previously been shown to be an agonist at (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors and an inhibitor of CaCl2-dependent [3H]-(S)-glutamic acid binding (J. Med. Chem. 1992, 35, 3512-3519). To elucidate the pharmacological significance of this latter binding affinity, which is also shown by quisqualic acid (3) but not by AMPA, we have now resolved Bu-HIBO via diastereomeric salt formation using the diprotected Bu-HIBO derivative 11 and the enantiomers of 1-phenylethylamine (PEA). The absolute stereochemistry of (S)-Bu-HIBO (7) (ee = 99.0%) and (R)-Bu-HIBO (8) (ee > 99.6%) were established by an X-ray crystallographic analysis of compound 15, a salt of (R)-PEA, and diprotected 8. Circular dichroism spectra of 7 and 8 were recorded. Whereas 7 (IC50 = 0.64 microM) and 8 (IC50 = 0.57 microM) were equipotent as inhibitors of CaCl2-dependent [3H]-(S)-glutamic acid binding, neither enantiomer showed significant affinity for the synaptosomal (S)-glutamic acid uptake system(s). AMPA receptor affinity (IC50 = 0.48 microM) and agonism (EC50 = 17 microM) were shown to reside exclusively in the S-enantiomer, 7. Compounds 7 and 8 did not interact detectably with kainic acid or N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor sites. Neither 7 nor 8 affected the function of the metabotropic (S)-glutamic acid receptors mGlu2 and mGlu4a, expressed in CHO cells. Compound 8 was shown also to be inactive at mGlu1 alpha, whereas 7 was determined to be a moderately potent antagonist at mGlu1 alpha (Ki = 110 microM) and mGlu5a (Ki = 97 microM). Using the rat cortical wedge preparation, the AMPA receptor agonist effect of 7 was markedly potentiated by coadministration of 8 at 21 degrees C, but not at 2-4 degrees C. These observations together indicate that the potentiation of the AMPA receptor agonism of 7 by 8 is not mediated by metabotropic (S)-glutamate receptors but rather by the CaCl2-dependent (S)-glutamic acid binding system, which shows the characteristics of a transport mechanism. After intravenous administration in mice, 7 (ED50 = 44 mumol/kg) was slightly more potent than AMPA (1) (ED50 = 55 mumol/kg) and twice as potent as Bu-HIBO (6) (ED50 = 94 mumol/kg) as a convulsant, whereas 8 was inactive. After subcutaneous administration in mice, Bu-HIBO (ED50 = 110 mumol/kg) was twice as potent as AMPA (ED50 = 220 mumol/kg) as a convulsant. Since 7 and Bu-HIBO (EC50 = 37 microM) are much weaker than AMPA (EC50 = 3.5 microM) as AMPA receptor agonists in vitro, the presence of a butyl group in the molecules of Bu-HIBO and 7 seems to facilitate the penetration of these compounds through the blood-brain barrier.
|Journal||Journal of Medicinal Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 12 Mar 1998|
- Alanine, Animals, Anticonvulsants, Brain, CHO Cells, Calcium Chloride, Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid, Cricetinae, Crystallography, X-Ray, Electrophysiology, Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists, Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists, Isoxazoles, Male, Mice, Molecular Conformation, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Receptors, AMPA, Receptors, Glutamate, Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate, Stereoisomerism