To facilitate studies of the rat bladder carcinogenicity of dual-acting PPAR alpha+gamma agonists, we previously identified the Egr-1 transcription factor as a candidate carcinogenicity biomarker and developed rat models based on coadministration of commercially available specific PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma agonists. Immunohistochemistry for Egr-1 with a rabbit monoclonal antibody demonstrated that male vehicle-treated rats exhibited minimal urothelial expression and specifically, no nuclear signal. In contrast, Egr-1 was induced in the nuclei of bladder, as well as kidney pelvis, urothelia within one day (2 doses) of oral dosing of rats with a combination of 8 mg/kg rosiglitazone and 200 mg/kg fenofibrate (specific PPAR gamma and PPAR alpha agonists, respectively). These findings were confirmed by Western blotting using a different Egr-1 antibody. Egr-1 was induced to similar levels in the dorsal and ventral bladder urothelium, arguing against involvement of urinary solids. Egr-1 induction sometimes occurred in a localized fashion, indicating physiological microheterogeneity in the urothelium. The rapid kinetics supported that Egr-1 induction occurred as a result of pharmacological activation of PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma, which are coexpressed at high levels in the rat urothelium. Finally, our demonstration of a nuclear localization supports that the Egr-1 induced by PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma coactivation in the rat urothelium may be biologically active.
Keywords: Administration, Oral; Animals; Carcinogenicity Tests; Carcinogens; Cell Nucleus; Early Growth Response Protein 1; Kidney Pelvis; Male; PPAR alpha; PPAR gamma; Procetofen; Rats; Thiazolidinediones; Urinary Bladder; Urothelium