Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark. / Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Bernhoft, IM; Hels, T; Rasmussen, Brian Schou; Linnet, Kristian.

In: Forensic Science International, Vol. 224, 2013, p. 44-50.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Simonsen, KW, Steentoft, A, Bernhoft, IM, Hels, T, Rasmussen, BS & Linnet, K 2013, 'Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark', Forensic Science International, vol. 224, pp. 44-50.

APA

Simonsen, K. W., Steentoft, A., Bernhoft, IM., Hels, T., Rasmussen, B. S., & Linnet, K. (2013). Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark. Forensic Science International, 224, 44-50.

Vancouver

Simonsen KW, Steentoft A, Bernhoft IM, Hels T, Rasmussen BS, Linnet K. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark. Forensic Science International. 2013;224:44-50.

Author

Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese ; Steentoft, Anni ; Bernhoft, IM ; Hels, T ; Rasmussen, Brian Schou ; Linnet, Kristian. / Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark. In: Forensic Science International. 2013 ; Vol. 224. pp. 44-50.

Bibtex

@article{fe80cb5779244d278a0e123aba5fb529,
title = "Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark",
abstract = "This study assesses the presence of a number of psychoactive substances, including alcohol, based on blood samples from 840 seriously injured drivers admitted to five selected hospitals located in five different regions of Denmark. The study was a part of the EU 6th framework program DRUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines). Blood samples were screened for 30 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Danish legal limits were used to evaluate the frequency of drivers violating the Danish legislation while limit of quantification (LOQ) was used for monitoring positive drivers. Tramadol is not included in the Danish legislation therefore the general cut off, as decided in the DRUID project was used. Overall, ethanol (18{\%}) was the most frequently identified compound (alone or in combination with other drugs) exceeding the legal limit, which is 0.53 g/l in Denmark. The percentage of seriously injured drivers testing positive for medicinal drugs at levels above the Danish legal limit was 6.8{\%}. Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (6.4{\%}) comprised the majority of this group. One or more illegal drugs (primarily amphetamines and cannabis) were found to be above the Danish legal limit in 4.9{\%} of injured drivers. Young men (median age 31 years) were over-represented among injured drivers who violated Danish law for alcohol and drugs. Diazepam (4.4{\%}), tramadol (3.2{\%}), and clonazepam (3.0{\%}) were the medicinal drugs most frequently detected at levels above LOQ, whereas amphetamines (5.4{\%}) (amphetamine [5.2{\%}] and methamphetamine [1.5{\%}]), tetrahydrocannabinol (3.7{\%}), and cocaine (3.3{\%}), including the metabolite benzoylecgonine, were the most frequently detected illegal drugs. A driver could be positive for more than one substance; therefore, percentages are not mutually exclusive. Poly-drug use was observed in 112 (13{\%}) seriously injured drivers. Tramadol was detected above DRUID cutoffs in 2.1{\%} of seriously injured drivers. This is 3.5 times that observed in a Danish survey of randomly selected drivers. Moreover, illegal and medicinal drug levels above the Danish legal limit were present more than 10 times as frequently as in injured drivers, whereas ethanol was present more than 30 times as frequently than in randomly selected drivers. The results indicate that there is an increased risk in traffic when driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs, especially alcohol in young male drivers.",
keywords = "Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Drugged and drunk driving, Injured drivers, alcohol, Illicit drugs, Medicinal drugs",
author = "Simonsen, {Kirsten Wiese} and Anni Steentoft and IM Bernhoft and T Hels and Rasmussen, {Brian Schou} and Kristian Linnet",
year = "2013",
language = "English",
volume = "224",
pages = "44--50",
journal = "Forensic Science International",
issn = "0379-0738",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark

AU - Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

AU - Steentoft, Anni

AU - Bernhoft, IM

AU - Hels, T

AU - Rasmussen, Brian Schou

AU - Linnet, Kristian

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - This study assesses the presence of a number of psychoactive substances, including alcohol, based on blood samples from 840 seriously injured drivers admitted to five selected hospitals located in five different regions of Denmark. The study was a part of the EU 6th framework program DRUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines). Blood samples were screened for 30 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Danish legal limits were used to evaluate the frequency of drivers violating the Danish legislation while limit of quantification (LOQ) was used for monitoring positive drivers. Tramadol is not included in the Danish legislation therefore the general cut off, as decided in the DRUID project was used. Overall, ethanol (18%) was the most frequently identified compound (alone or in combination with other drugs) exceeding the legal limit, which is 0.53 g/l in Denmark. The percentage of seriously injured drivers testing positive for medicinal drugs at levels above the Danish legal limit was 6.8%. Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (6.4%) comprised the majority of this group. One or more illegal drugs (primarily amphetamines and cannabis) were found to be above the Danish legal limit in 4.9% of injured drivers. Young men (median age 31 years) were over-represented among injured drivers who violated Danish law for alcohol and drugs. Diazepam (4.4%), tramadol (3.2%), and clonazepam (3.0%) were the medicinal drugs most frequently detected at levels above LOQ, whereas amphetamines (5.4%) (amphetamine [5.2%] and methamphetamine [1.5%]), tetrahydrocannabinol (3.7%), and cocaine (3.3%), including the metabolite benzoylecgonine, were the most frequently detected illegal drugs. A driver could be positive for more than one substance; therefore, percentages are not mutually exclusive. Poly-drug use was observed in 112 (13%) seriously injured drivers. Tramadol was detected above DRUID cutoffs in 2.1% of seriously injured drivers. This is 3.5 times that observed in a Danish survey of randomly selected drivers. Moreover, illegal and medicinal drug levels above the Danish legal limit were present more than 10 times as frequently as in injured drivers, whereas ethanol was present more than 30 times as frequently than in randomly selected drivers. The results indicate that there is an increased risk in traffic when driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs, especially alcohol in young male drivers.

AB - This study assesses the presence of a number of psychoactive substances, including alcohol, based on blood samples from 840 seriously injured drivers admitted to five selected hospitals located in five different regions of Denmark. The study was a part of the EU 6th framework program DRUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines). Blood samples were screened for 30 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Danish legal limits were used to evaluate the frequency of drivers violating the Danish legislation while limit of quantification (LOQ) was used for monitoring positive drivers. Tramadol is not included in the Danish legislation therefore the general cut off, as decided in the DRUID project was used. Overall, ethanol (18%) was the most frequently identified compound (alone or in combination with other drugs) exceeding the legal limit, which is 0.53 g/l in Denmark. The percentage of seriously injured drivers testing positive for medicinal drugs at levels above the Danish legal limit was 6.8%. Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (6.4%) comprised the majority of this group. One or more illegal drugs (primarily amphetamines and cannabis) were found to be above the Danish legal limit in 4.9% of injured drivers. Young men (median age 31 years) were over-represented among injured drivers who violated Danish law for alcohol and drugs. Diazepam (4.4%), tramadol (3.2%), and clonazepam (3.0%) were the medicinal drugs most frequently detected at levels above LOQ, whereas amphetamines (5.4%) (amphetamine [5.2%] and methamphetamine [1.5%]), tetrahydrocannabinol (3.7%), and cocaine (3.3%), including the metabolite benzoylecgonine, were the most frequently detected illegal drugs. A driver could be positive for more than one substance; therefore, percentages are not mutually exclusive. Poly-drug use was observed in 112 (13%) seriously injured drivers. Tramadol was detected above DRUID cutoffs in 2.1% of seriously injured drivers. This is 3.5 times that observed in a Danish survey of randomly selected drivers. Moreover, illegal and medicinal drug levels above the Danish legal limit were present more than 10 times as frequently as in injured drivers, whereas ethanol was present more than 30 times as frequently than in randomly selected drivers. The results indicate that there is an increased risk in traffic when driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs, especially alcohol in young male drivers.

KW - Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences

KW - Drugged and drunk driving

KW - Injured drivers

KW - alcohol

KW - Illicit drugs

KW - Medicinal drugs

M3 - Journal article

VL - 224

SP - 44

EP - 50

JO - Forensic Science International

JF - Forensic Science International

SN - 0379-0738

ER -

ID: 43984687