OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Barriers Questionnaire-II (DBQ-II). METHODS: The validated Norwegian version of the DBQ-II was translated into Danish. Cancer patients for the study were recruited from specialized pain management facilities. Thirty-three patients responded to the DBQ-II, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Brief Pain Inventory pain severity scale. RESULTS: A factor analysis of the DBQ-II resulted in six scales. Scale one, Fatalism, consisted of three items addressing fatalistic beliefs regarding cancer pain management. Scale two, Immune System, consisted of three items addressing the belief that pain medications harm the immune system. Scale three, Monitor, consisted of three items addressing the fear that pain medicine masks changes in one's body. Scale four, Communication, consisted of five items addressing the concern that reports of pain distract the physician from treating the cancer, and the belief that "good" patients do not complain. Scale five, Addiction, consisted of two items addressing the fear of becoming addicted to pain medication. Finally, scale six, Tolerance, consisted of three items addressing the fear of getting tolerant to analgesic effect of pain medicine. Items related to medication side effects were analyzed as separate units. The DBQ-II total had an internal consistency of 0.87. The DBQ-II total score was related to measures of pain relief and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: The DBQ-II seems to be a reliable and valid measure of the barriers to pain management among Danish cancer patients.
Keywords: Adult; Affect; Aged; Analgesics, Opioid; Anxiety; Communication Barriers; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Culture; Denmark; Fear; Female; Humans; Illness Behavior; Male; Medication Adherence; Middle Aged; Neoplasms; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Pain; Patient Compliance; Patient Satisfaction; Personality Assessment; Personality Inventory; Physician-Patient Relations; Psychometrics; Questionnaires; Self Concept