Employees – University of Copenhagen

Bente Vestergaard

Bente Vestergaard

Associate Professor

I am the group leader of the BioSAXS group, dept. Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, and the director of the Lundbeck Foundation Initiative on Integrative Structural Biology, BRAINSTRUC (http://www.brainstruc.ku.dk). I have focused on structural biology throughout my carreer. I was trained in macromolecular X-ray crystallography and have experience with cryo electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray fiber diffraction. Since 2004 I have specialized in small angle X-ray scattering on proteins in solution and have established the first Scandinavian bioSAXS group at the University of Copenhagen. In my group, we focus on structural characterisation of complex pharmaceutically relevant protein solutions. We analyze heterogeneous protein systems, and particularly specialize in characterisation of fibrillating proteins. We have developed novel methods for structural analysis of fibrillating systems, applying advanced decomposition and multidisciplinary characterisation.

Primary fields of research

BioSAXS

Structural Analysis of Protein Fibrillation

Structural Biology

Teaching

National Teaching: course responsible for 'Advances in Medicinal Chemistry Research'. Lecturer and supervisor of practicals on 'Medicinal and Biostructural Chemistry'.

International Teaching: Co-organizer (together with my close colleague prof. Lise Arleth) of the Copenhagen BioSAS practial courses on biomacromolecular solution scattering. The courses aim at international young researchers (PhD, postdoc level) and is a collaboration with the group of EMBL group leader Dmitri Svergun and MAX-lab SAXS beamline (I911-4). I am returning teacher on the EMBL-Hamburg EMBO BioSAS courses, and (more recently) the ESRF Grenoble EMBO BioSAS course.

Selected publications

  1. Published

    A helical structural nucleus is the primary elongating unit of insulin amyloid fibrils

    Vestergaard, B., Jensen, M. G., Roessle, M., Kastrup, J. S. J., Van De Weert, M., Flink, J. M., Frøkjær, S., Gajhede, M. & Svergun, D. I., 2007, In : PLoS - Biology. 5, 5, p. 1089-1097

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  2. Published

    Ionotropic glutamate-like receptor d2 binds D-serine and glycine.

    Naur, P., Hansen, K. B., Kristensen, A. S., Dravid, S. M., Pickering, D. S., Olsen, L., Vestergaard, B., Egebjerg, J., Gajhede, M., Traynelis, S. F. & Kastrup, J. S. J., 2007, In : Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America. 104, 35, p. 14116-14121

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  3. Published

    Small angle X-ray scattering study of calreticulin reveals conformational plasticity

    Toft, K. N., Larsen, N., Jørgensen, F. S., Højrup, P., Houen, G. & Vestergaard, B., 2008, In : BBA General Subjects. 1784, 9, p. 1265-1270

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  4. Published

    High-throughput small angle X-ray scattering from proteins in solution using a microfluidic front-end

    Toft, K. N., Vestergaard, B., Nielsen, S. S., Snakenborg, D., Jeppesen, M. G., Jacobsen, J. K., Arleth, L. & Kutter, J. P., 2008, In : Analytical Chemistry. 80, 10, p. 3648-3654 7 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  5. Published

    Structures of the ligand-binding core of iGluR2 in complex with the agonists (R)- and (S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl)propionic acid explain their unusual equipotency

    Beich-Frandsen, M., Pickering, D. S., Mirza, O., Johansen, T. N., Greenwood, J., Vestergaard, B., Schousboe, A., Gajhede, M., Liljefors, T. & Kastrup, J. S., 2008, In : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 51, 5, p. 1459-63

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  6. Published

    Application of Bayesian analysis to indirect fourier transformation in small-angle scattering

    Vestergaard, B. & Hansen, S. L., 2006, In : Journal of Applied Crystallography. 39, p. 797-804 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  7. Published

    Small angle X-ray studies reveal that Aspergillus niger glucoamylase has a defined extended conformation and can form dimers in solution

    Jørgensen, A. D., Nøhr, J., Kastrup, J. S., Gajhede, M., Sigurskjold, B. W., Sauer, J., Svergun, D. I., Svensson, B. & Vestergaard, B., 2008, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283, 21, p. 14772-14780

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  8. Published

    A new small-angle X-ray scattering set-up on the crystallography beamline I711 at MAX-lab

    Knaapila, M., Svensson, C., Barauskas, J., Zackrisson, M., Nielsen, S. S., Toft, K. N., Vestergaard, B., Arleth, L., Olsson, U., Pedersen, J. S. & Cerenius, Y., 2009, In : Journal of Synchrotron Radiation. 16, 4, p. 498-504 7 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  9. Published

    BioXTAS RAW, a software program for high-throughput automated small-angle X-ray scattering data reduction and preliminary analysis

    Nielsen, S. S., Toft, K. N., Snakenborg, D., Jeppesen, M. G., Jacobsen, J. K., Vestergaard, B., Kutter, J. P. & Arleth, L., 2009, In : Journal of Applied Crystallography. 42, 5, p. 959-964 6 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  10. Published
  11. Published

    Methods for structural characterization of prefibrillar intermediates and amyloid fibrils

    Langkilde, A. E. & Vestergaard, B., 2009, In : FEBS Letters. 583, 16, p. 2600-2609

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  12. Published

    Extensive small-angle X-ray scattering studies of blood coagulation factor VIIa reveal interdomain flexibility

    Mosbæk, C. R., Nolan, D., Persson, E., Svergun, D. I., Bukrinsky, J. T. & Vestergaard, B., 2010, In : Biochemistry. 49, 45, p. 9739-9745

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  13. Published

    Formation mechanism of insulin fibrils and structural aspects of the insulin fibrillation process

    Jensen, M. G., Frøkjær, S. & Vestergaard, B., 2009, In : Current Protein and Peptide Science. 10, 5, p. 509-528

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  14. Published

    Self-association of long-acting insulin analogues studied by size exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle light scattering

    Jensen, M. H., Wahlund, P-O., Jacobsen, J. K., Vestergaard, B., van de Weert, M. & Havelund, S., 2011, In : Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. 879, 28, p. 2945-2951

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  15. Bacterial polypeptide release factor RF2 is structurally distinct from eukaryotic eRF1

    Vestergaard, B., Van, L. B., Andersen, G. R., Nyborg, J. & Kjeldgaard, M., 2001, In : Molecular Cell. 8, p. 1375-1382 7 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  16. Recognition by tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases of discriminator base on tRNATrp from three biological domains

    Guo, Q., Vestergaard, B., Costa, Degres, Wong, Grosjean, Zhu, Wong & Xue, 2002, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277, p. 14343-14349 6 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  17. A cryo-electron microscopic study of ribosome-bound termination factor RF2

    Rawat, Zavialov, A., Sengupta, Valle, Grasucci, Linde, Vestergaard, B., Ehrenberg, M. & Frank, J., 2003, In : Nature. 421, p. 87-90 4 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  18. Structure of the E. coli ribosomal termination complex with release factor 2

    Klaholz, B., Pape, T., Zavialov, A., Myasnikov, Orlova, Vestergaard, B., Ehrenberg, M. & van Heel, M., 2003, In : Nature. 421, p. 90-94 5 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  19. Published

    Crystal structure of the kainate receptor GluR5 ligand-binding core in complex with (S)-glutamate

    Naur, P., Vestergaard, B., Skov, L., Egebjerg, J., Gajhede, M. & Kastrup, J. S. J., 2005, In : FEBS letters. 579, p. 1154-60

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  20. Published

    Diverse bacterial genomes encode an operon of two genes, one of which is a unusual class-I release factor that potentially recognizes atypical mRNA signals other than normal stop codons

    Baranov, P., Vestergaard, B., Hamelryck, T. W., Gesteland, Nyborg, J. & Atking, J., 2006, In : Biology Direct. 13, p. 1-28 28 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  21. Published

    A high-affinity, dimeric inhibitor of PSD-95 bivalently interacts with PDZ1-2 and protects against ischemic brain damage

    Bach, A., Clausen, B. H., Møller, M., Vestergaard, B., Chi, C. N., Round, A., Sørensen, P. L., Nissen, K. B., Kastrup, J. S., Gajhede, M., Jemth, P., Kristensen, A. S., Lundström, P., Lambertsen, K. L. & Strømgaard, K. C., 28 Feb 2012, In : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109, 9, p. 3317-3322

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  22. Published

    Structural characterization of prefibrillar intermediates and amyloid fibrils by small-angle X-ray scattering

    Langkilde, A. E. & Vestergaard, B., 2012, Amyloid proteins: methods and protocols. Sigurdsson, E. M., Calero, M. & Gasset, M. (eds.). 2 ed. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, Vol. 849. p. 137-155 18 p. (Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 849).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearch

  23. Published

    Small angle X-ray scattering-based elucidation of the self-association mechanism of human insulin analogue lys(B29)(N(e)¿-carboxyheptadecanoyl) des(B30)

    Jensen, M. H., Wahlund, P-O., Toft, K. N., Jacobsen, J. K., Steensgaard, D. B., van de Weert, M., Havelund, S. & Vestergaard, B., 15 Jan 2013, In : Biochemistry. 52, 2, p. 282-94 13 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  24. Published

    Large-scale polymorphism and auto-catalytic effect in insulin fibrillogenesis

    Foderà, V., van de Weert, M. & Vestergaard, B., 2010, In : Soft Matter. 6, 18, p. 4413-4419

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  25. Published

    The SAXS Solution Structure of RF1 Differs from Its Crystal Structure and Is Similar to Its Ribosome Bound Cryo-EM Structure

    Vestergaard, B., Sanyal, S., Roessle, M., Mora, L., Buckingham, R., Kastrup, J. S. J., Gajhede, M., Svergun, D. I. & Ehrenberg, M., 2005, In : Molecular Cell. 20, p. 929-938

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  26. Published

    Unlocked Concanavalin A Forms Amyloid-like Fibrils from Coagulation of Long-lived “Crinkled” Intermediates

    Vetri, V., Leone, M., Morozova-Roche, L. A., Vestergaard, B. & Foderà, V., 2013, In : PLoS ONE. 8, 7, 11 p., e68912.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  27. Published

    Structural Investigations of on-pathway Oligomers of α-Synuclein

    Pedersen, M. N., Horvath, I., Weise, C. F., Foderà, V., Wittung-Stafshede, P., Wolf-Watz, M., Toft, K. N. & Vestergaard, B., 31 May 2012.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePosterResearch

  28. Published

    High concentration formulation studies of an IgG2 antibody using small angle X-ray scattering

    Mosbæk, C. R., Konarev, P., Svergun, D. I., Rischel, C. & Vestergaard, B., 2012, In : Pharmaceutical Research. 29, 8, p. 2225-2235

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  29. Published

    Structural model and trans-interaction of the entire ectodomain of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule

    Kulahin, N., Kristensen, O., Rasmussen, K. K., Olsen, L., Rydberg, P., Vestergaard, B., Kastrup, J. S., Berezin, V., Bock, E., Walmod, P. S. & Gajhede, M., 9 Feb 2011, In : Structure. 19, 2, p. 203-211

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  30. Published

    Automated microfluidic sample-preparation platform for high-throughput structural investigation of proteins by small-angle X-ray scattering

    Lafleur, J., Snakenborg, D., Nielsen, S. S., Møller, M., Toft, K. N., Menzel, A., Jacobsen, J. K., Vestergaard, B., Arleth, L. & Kutter, J. P., 2011, In : Journal of Applied Crystallography. 44, p. 1090-1099 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  31. Published

    Tyr702 is an important determinant of agonist binding and domain closure of the ligand-binding core of GluR2

    Frandsen, A., Pickering, D. S., Vestergaard, B., Kasper, C., Nielsen, B. B., Greenwood, J. R., Campiani, G., Fattorusso, C., Gajhede, M., Schousboe, A. & Kastrup, J. S., 2005, In : Molecular Pharmacology. 67, 3, p. 703-13 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  32. Published

    Low-resolution structure of a vesicle disrupting a-synuclein oligomer that accumulates during fibrillation

    Giehm, L., Svergun, D. I., Otzen, D. E. & Vestergaard, B., 2011, In : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108, 8, p. 3246-3251

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  33. Published

    Time-resolved SAXS measurements facilitated by online HPLC buffer exchange

    Jensen, M. H., Toft, K. N., David, G., Havelund, S., Pérez, J. & Vestergaard, B., 2010, In : Journal of Synchrotron Radiation. 17, 6, p. 769-773

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  34. Published

    Gennembrud i forståelsen af insulinfibrillering

    Jensen, M. G., Vestergaard, B., Frøkjær, S., Gajhede, M., Flink, J. M., Van De Weert, M., Kastrup, J. S. J. & Svergun, D. I., 2007, In : Lægemiddelforskning. p. 10-11

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleCommunication

  35. Published

    Kimen til de farlige fibriller

    Jensen, M. G. & Vestergaard, B., 2007, In : Aktuel Naturvidenskab. 6, p. 12-15

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleCommunication

  36. Published

    Noninvasive Structural Analysis of Intermediate Species During Fibrillation: An Application of Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    Langkilde, A. E., Herranz-Trillo, F., Bernadó, P. & Vestergaard, B., 8 Jun 2018, Amyloid Proteins: methods and protocols. Sigurdsson, E., Calero, M. & Gasset, M. (eds.). Humana Press, Vol. 1779. p. 209-239 31 p. (Methods in Molecular Biology).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearch

  37. Published

    Structural Analysis of Multi-component Amyloid Systems by Chemometric SAXS Data Decomposition

    Trillo, I. F. H., Jensen, M. G., van Maarschalkerweerd, A., Tauler, R., Vestergaard, B. & Bernadó, P., 3 Jan 2017, In : Structure. 25, 1, p. 5–15 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  38. Published

    SAS-Based Studies of Protein Fibrillation

    Marasini, C. & Vestergaard, B., 2017, Biological Small Angle Scattering: Techniques, Strategies and Tips. Springer Science+Business Media, Vol. 1009. p. 149-165 17 p. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review

  39. Published

    Sucrose modulates insulin amyloid-like fibril formation: effect on the aggregation mechanism and fibril morphology

    Marasini, C., Foderà, V. & Vestergaard, B., 2017, In : RSC Advances. 7, p. 10487-10493

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  40. Published

    Trifluoroethanol modulates α-synuclein amyloid-like aggregate formation, stability and dissolution

    Di Carlo, M. G., Vetri, V., Buscarino, G., Leone, M., Vestergaard, B. & Foderà, V., Sep 2016, In : Biophysical Chemistry. 216, p. 23-30 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  41. Published

    Analysis of biostructural changes, dynamics, and interactions - Small-angle X-ray scattering to the rescue

    Vestergaard, B., 15 Jul 2016, In : Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 602, p. 69-79 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  42. Published

    Mechanistic study of the inhibitory activity of Geum urbanum extract against α-Synuclein fibrillation

    Lobbens, E. S., Breydo, L., Pedersen, T. S., Vestergaard, B., Jäger, A. K., Jørgensen, L., Uversky, V. & van de Weert, M., 21 Jun 2016, In : B B A - Proteins and Proteomics. 1864, 9, p. 1160-1169 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  43. Published

    Monoclonal Antibodies Follow Distinct Aggregation Pathways During Production-Relevant Acidic Incubation and Neutralization

    Pedersen, T. S., Tian, X., Thorolfsson, M., Karkov, H. S., Rasmussen, H. B., Langkilde, A. E. & Vestergaard, B., Mar 2016, In : Pharmaceutical Research. 33, 3, p. 716-28 13 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  44. Published

    Protein-protein interactions: a supra-structural phenomenon demanding trans-disciplinary biophysical approaches

    Byron, O. & Vestergaard, B., Dec 2015, In : Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 35, p. 76-86 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  45. Published

    Formation of covalent di-tyrosine dimers in recombinant α-synuclein

    van Maarschalkerweerd, A., Pedersen, MN., Peterson, H., Nilsson, M., Nguyen, TTT., Skamris, T., Rand, K., Vetri, V., Langkilde, AE. & Vestergaard, B., 19 Oct 2015, In : Intrinsically Disordered Proteins. 3, 1, p. 1-12 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  46. Published

    Cholesterol facilitates interactions between α-synuclein oligomers and charge-neutral membranes

    van Maarschalkerweerd, A., Vetri, V. & Vestergaard, B., 14 Sep 2015, In : FEBS letters. 589, 19 Pt B, p. 2661-7 7 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  47. Published

    Structure of dimeric and tetrameric complexes of the BAR domain protein PICK1 determined by small-angle X-Ray scattering

    Karlsen, M. L., Thorsen, T. S., Johner, N., Ammendrup-Johnsen, I., Erlendsson, S., Tian, X., Simonsen, J. B., Hoiberg-Nielsen, R., Christensen, N. M., Khelashvili, G., Streicher, W., Teilum, K., Vestergaard, B., Weinstein, H., Gether, U., Arleth, L. & Madsen, K. L., 7 Jul 2015, In : Structure. 23, 7, p. 1258-1270 13 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  48. Published

    The architecture of amyloid-like peptide fibrils revealed by X-ray scattering, diffraction and electron microscopy

    Langkilde, A. E., Morris, K. L., Serpell, L. C., Svergun, D. I. & Vestergaard, B., Apr 2015, In : Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography. 71, Pt 4, p. 882-95 14 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  49. Published

    In-depth analysis of subclass-specific conformational preferences of IgG antibodies

    Tian, X., Vestergaard, B., Thorolfsson, M., Yang, Z., Rasmussen, H. B. & Langkilde, A. E., 1 Jan 2015, In : IUCrJ. 2, 1, p. 9-18 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  50. Published

    Considerably Unfolded Transthyretin Monomers Preceed and Exchange with Dynamically Structured Amyloid Protofibrils

    Groenning, M., Campos, R. I., Hirschberg, D., Hammarström, P. & Vestergaard, B., 2015, In : Scientific Reports. 5, p. 1-18 18 p., 11443.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  51. Published

    Direct Correlation Between Ligand-Induced α-Synuclein Oligomers and Amyloid-like Fibril Growth

    Pedersen, M. N., Foderà, V., Horvath, I., van Maarschalkerweerd, A., Nørgaard Toft, K., Weise, C., Almqvist, F., Wolf-Watz, M., Wittung-Stafshede, P. & Vestergaard, B., 2015, In : Scientific Reports. 5, p. 1-12 12 p., 10422.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  52. Published

    Protein/lipid coaggregates are formed during α-synuclein-induced disruption of lipid bilayers

    van Maarschalkerweerd, A., Vetri, V., Langkilde, A. E., Foderà, V. & Vestergaard, B., 13 Oct 2014, In : Biomacromolecules. 15, 10, p. 3643-54 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  53. Published

    Observation of the Early Structural Changes Leading to the Formation of Protein Superstructures

    Foderà, V., Vetri, V., Wind, T. S., Noppe, W., Cornett, C., Donald, A. M., Morozova-Roche, L. A. & Vestergaard, B., 18 Sep 2014, In : Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. 5, 18, p. 3254-3258 5 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  54. Published

    Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Screening Complements Conventional Biophysical Analysis: Comparative Structural and Biophysical Analysis of Monoclonal Antibodies IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4

    Tian, X., Langkilde, A. E., Thorolfsson, M., Rasmussen, H. B. & Vestergaard, B., Jun 2014, In : Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 103, 6, p. 1701-10 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  55. Published

    In situ microfluidic dialysis for biological small-angle X-ray scattering.

    Vestergaard, B. & Skou, M., 2014, In : Journal of Applied Crystallography. 47, p. 1355-1366 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  56. Published

    Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies of Mitochondrial Glutaminase C Reveal Extended Flexible Regions, and Link Oligomeric State with Enzyme Activity

    Møller, M., Nielsen, S. S., Ramachandran, S., Li, Y., Tria, G., Streicher, W., Petoukhov, M. V., Cerione, R. A., Gillilan, R. E. & Vestergaard, B., 30 Sep 2013, In : P L o S One. 8, 9, e74783.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  57. Published

    Wildtype and A30P mutant alpha-synuclein form different fibril structures

    Nielsen, S. B., Macchi, F., Raccosta, S., Langkilde, A. E., Giehm, L., Kyrsting, A. H., Svane, A. S. P., Manno, M., Christiansen, G., Nielsen, N. C., Oddershede, L. B., Vestergaard, B. & Otzen, D., 2013, In : PLoS ONE. 8, 7, e67713.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

ID: 1305569