Polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors, GPR40 and GPR120, are expressed in the hypothalamus and control energy homeostasis and inflammation

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BACKGROUND: The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats is one of the most important environmental factors contributing to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. GPR120 and GPR40 are polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors that exert a number of systemic effects that are beneficial for metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluate the expression and potential role of hypothalamic GPR120 and GPR40 as targets for the treatment of obesity.METHODS: Male Swiss (6-weeks old), were fed with a high fat diet (HFD, 60% of kcal from fat) for 4 weeks. Next, mice underwent stereotaxic surgery to place an indwelling cannula into the right lateral ventricle. intracerebroventricular (icv)-cannulated mice were treated twice a day for 6 days with 2.0 μL saline or GPR40 and GPR120 agonists: GW9508, TUG1197, or TUG905 (2.0 μL, 1.0 mM). Food intake and body mass were measured during the treatment period. At the end of the experiment, the hypothalamus was collected for real-time PCR analysis.RESULTS: We show that both receptors are expressed in the hypothalamus; GPR120 is primarily present in microglia, whereas GPR40 is expressed in neurons. Upon intracerebroventricular treatment, GW9508, a non-specific agonist for both receptors, reduced energy efficiency and the expression of inflammatory genes in the hypothalamus. Reducing GPR120 hypothalamic expression using a lentivirus-based approach resulted in the loss of the anti-inflammatory effect of GW9508 and increased energy efficiency. Intracerebroventricular treatment with the GPR120- and GPR40-specific agonists TUG1197 and TUG905, respectively, resulted in milder effects than those produced by GW9508.CONCLUSIONS: GPR120 and GPR40 act in concert in the hypothalamus to reduce energy efficiency and regulate the inflammation associated with obesity. The combined activation of both receptors in the hypothalamus results in better metabolic outcomes than the isolated activation of either receptor alone.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Neuroinflammation
Issue number91
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes

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M1 - 91

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